Creative Insight and Inspiration…

How To Be Creative | Off Book | PBS Digital Studios

Kirby Ferguson: Embrace the Remix – Ted Talk, video, 09:42
Nothing is original, says Kirby Ferguson, creator of Everything is a Remix.
From Bob Dylan to Steve Jobs, he says our most celebrated creators borrow, steal and transform.

The Schweizer Guide to Spotting Tangents
A tangent is when two or more lines interact in a way that insinuates a relationship
between them that the artist did not intend.

Towson University Access to Lynda.com
The Office of Technology Services offers free access to the highly-regarded online tutorial service

Nikon D5 DSLR released on January 6, 2016.

ART 235 Photo Imaging: Creative Workflow

Creative Workflow is the foundation course for all newly declared photography majors, introducing students to the art of photographic imaging and digital asset management. Students will be working with DSLR cameras and professional level image-editing and management applications while exploring their limitless creative potential and focusing on their intellectual development.

Prerequisite: ART 103 2D Process

Adobe Creative Cloud logo.

Adobe® Creative Cloud™

Adobe Creative Cloud, is a monthly membership (subscription) that gives you the entire collection of CC tools and more. Love print? Interested in websites and iPad apps? Ready to edit video? You can do it all. Plus, Creative Cloud members automatically get access to new products and exclusive updates as soon as they’re released. And, with 20 GB of cloud storage and the ability to sync to any device, your files are always right where you need them.

Creative Cloud Photography Plan for those who just want Photoshop & Lightroom

 

 

Apple Photos for macOS icon.

Migrate your Apple Aperture or Photos Library into Lightroom

Schedule at a glance (subject to revision)

September

01 Introduction: overview of course and materials.


08Lecture/Presentation: historical overview of photographic imaging. Equipment check: bring computer, hardware and software. Getting started with Adobe Photoshop CC 2017 (version 18). Investigate digital imaging fundamentals and various image editing techniques.

15Lecture/Presentation: overview of photographic imaging. Equipment check: bring computer, camera, manual and hardware & software. Getting started with your camera and basic operations. Discuss exposure: ISO, apertures (ƒ-stops) & shutter speed. Discuss shooting modes. Begin shooting and camera exploration.

22 Lecture/Presentation/Challenge One: bring equipment, Getting started with Adobe Photoshop Lightroom CC (version 6.x). Adding metadata to images. Non-destructive image editing. Individual critiques. Shooting in manual mode.

29Lecture/Presentation/Challenge Two: bring equipment, Adobe Lightroom. Continue working with the Develop module. Investigate retouching in Lightroom and Photoshop. Discuss exposure bracketing and more about shooting. Individual instruction & critiques.

October

06Lecture/Presentation/Challenge Three: bring equipment, Adobe Lightroom. Continue working with the Develop module. Investigate retouching in Lightroom and Photoshop. Discuss lens types (wide-angle, normal, telephoto and specialty glass) and more about shooting. Printing demo in CA4006 Print Center.

13Midterm – Critique/Project One Due: bring equipment, Adobe Photoshop Lightroom. Working with your cameras and aperture-priority mode to explore depth of field. Individual instruction & critiques.

20Lecture/Presentation: Bring equipment, Adobe Photoshop & Lightroom. Portrait photography: investigate shooting portraits and various lighting set ups. Continue working with aperture-priority mode. Individual instruction & critiques.

27Lecture/Lab/Project Two Due: Bring images, equipment, Adobe Photoshop & Lightroom. Introduction to symbolism in portraiture. Developing and image manipulation techniques. Individual instruction & critiques.

November

03Critique/Project Two Due: Bring images, equipment, Adobe Photoshop & Lightroom. Presentation on the power of cropping imagery. Introduction to symbolism in portraiture. Developing and image manipulation techniques. Individual instruction & critiques.

10Critique/Project Two Due: bring files, prints, notes, equipment, Adobe Photoshop & Lightroom. Individual instruction & critiques.

17Lecture/Lab/Critique/Project Three Due: Editing images in Lightroom. Individual instruction & critiques.


24Thanksgiving Break: enjoy the Holiday and keep shooting!


December

01Lecture/Lab: Investigate typography in Adobe Photoshop. Exploring the Slideshow and Web modules in Lightroom. Discuss publishing services and merits of social media. Individual instruction & critiques.

08Open Lab: class time to work on final project with individual instruction. Bring in any borrowed equipment that needs to be returned to the University.

15 Final Exam 12:30 – 2:30 pm: a series of images, slideshow & web gallery. Thanks for participating in ART 235, enjoy your Holiday and keep shooting!

Notes & Projects

Illustration of multiple photographs composited together.

Taking Photographs

Students begin taking photographs (shooting) on the third day of class and capture images throughout the semester. It's really easy to shoot thousands of images for this course.

Digital images are date and time stamped upon creation and may be reviewed anytime class is in session, including critiques. Image creation dates will be examined for contiguity and will contribute to the student's final grade.


Shooting Dos & Presentation Don'ts

check markDo shoot (take a photograph of) everything and anything, anywhere and anytime. The more you shoot and think about photography, the more you will learn and the better you will become. All subject matter can be presented for individual critiques.

  • photograph people, places & things
  • photograph day & night
  • photograph light & shadows
  • photograph personal interests
  • photograph your stuff
  • photograph your world

A few more ideas about what to shoot…

  • photograph time
  • photograph weather
  • photograph motion
  • photograph emotions
  • photograph concepts
  • photograph desire
  • photograph passion
  • photograph dreams
  • photograph art
  • photograph life

 

prohibition symbolDon't present the following subject matter for project critiques. Photographs containing these subjects will not be discussed and will result with zero points for that project.

  • Babies & Pets – of any kind. We get it, they're cute!
  • Events – i.e. weddings, bar mitzvahs, little Johnny's birthday party, concerts, religious & political events, etc.
  • Snapshots – you know… phone photos, family & friend photos, spontaneous (or even uncontrollable) presses of the shutter release… say cheese!

 

Animated framed portrait.ART 235 Photo Imaging: Creative Workflow is an art course. It's about learning to use photography for personal expression and strategies for managing your digital assets and your digital lifestyle. It's not about photo journalism, family photos, event photography, documenting your life here at Towson University, etc. Be creative! Explore new directions and your personal interests with this medium. You'll be able to apply everything you learn in this course to all of your future photographic needs.

George Eastman House presents…

The George Eastman House International Museum of Photography & Film, located in Rochester, NY, combines the world’s leading collections of photography and motion pictures with the National Historic Landmark mansion and gardens of Kodak founder George Eastman. Eastman is heralded as the father of popular photography and motion picture film.

Inventions of Photography – Photographic Processes Series

A short introduction about the history of photography by The George Eastman House, released December 2014. Video, 63:49 in 12 short parts.

Photograph of a hand holding a camera lens.

Factoid No. 9
Camera lenses are circular, but photographs are rectangular… believe it or not!

13 Mind-bending Thoughts About Photography

Photographer Matthew Rycroft put together this video containing 13 strange, random, and mind-bending “facts” about photography. These are short and seemingly obvious statements that may make you stop and think. Read more on PetaPixel…

Challenge One illustration.

Click image for larger version.

Challenge One

Three Shots (Auto)

Due: September 22nd

Concept: Explore your camera while photographing a subject and interpreting the shot list.

 

Shot List

  • Shoot a coffee cup/mug with coffee in it (hint: include coffee in shot)
  • Shoot a coffee cup/mug without coffee in it
  • Shoot a coffee cup/mug so the audience can't tell what's in it

 

Shoot anything you want during the week to further explore your camera – it's normal to shoot hundreds or thousands of images during this course :)

 

Bring your camera, computer with Adobe Photoshop Lightroom installed and your digital files to the next class for processing.

Challenge Two illustration.

Click image for larger version.

Challenge Two

Twelve Shots (Manual Mode)

Due: September 29th

Concept: Set up a still life and explore your camera's manual mode while shooting and interpreting the shot/task list.

Research still life photography in your favorite web browser for inspiration. Research other terms such as ISO, aperture or ƒ-stop, shutter speed and more to help you understand photography.

 

Shot/Task List (12 Shots / same subject)

  • Set your camera to it's lowest ISO (usually 100 or 200)
  • Select the largest ƒ-stop (as close to ƒ/2.8 as possible) on your lens
  • Meter the light to select the appropriate shutter speed and shoot
  • Select ƒ/8 on your lens
  • Meter the light to select the appropriate shutter speed and shoot
  • Select the smallest ƒ-stop (as close to ƒ/22 as possible) on your lens
  • Meter the light to select the appropriate shutter speed and shoot
  • Set your camera to ISO 800 and reshoot, adjusting the ƒ-stops as above and metering the light to select the appropriate shutter speed
  • Set your camera to ISO 3200 and reshoot, adjusting the ƒ-stops as above and metering the light to select the appropriate shutter speed
  • Set your camera to it's highest ISO and reshoot, adjusting the ƒ-stops as above and metering the light to select the appropriate shutter speed

 

Shoot anything you want during the week to further explore your camera – it's normal to shoot hundreds or thousands of images during this course :)

 

Bring your camera, computer with Adobe Photoshop Lightroom installed and your digital files to the next class for processing.

Challenge Two illustration.

Contact sheet of Sophia Loren by David Seymore. Click image for larger version.

 

 

ISO Quick Guide


ISO 100 or less – bright light situations

ISO 200 – bright light or open shade

ISO 400 – overcast or indoors

ISO 800 – low light situations, nighttime, concerts

ISO 1600 – low light situations, candlelight

ISO 3200 or greater – extreme low light situations, moon or star light

Low ISO values produce clear images. High ISO values produce image noise (film grain).

 

Explora – B&H Photo
News, Tips & Reviews about Photography

Learn more about exposure online…

ISO Explained – video, 04:10

Aperture – video, 06:03

Shutter Speed – video, 07:34

Challenge Three

One Hundred Eight Shots (Manual Mode & Exposure Bracket)

Due: October 6th

Concept: Portraiture – photograph a person, exploring your camera's manual mode and bracket your exposures while shooting and interpreting the shot/task list. Shoot the equivalent of three rolls of film for this challenge.

Rolls of film typically contain 36 exposures x 3 = 108 shots.

Exposure brackets usually consist of three exposures – a normal exposure, an over exposure and an under exposure. You'll take three exposures for each shot in this challenge.

You can refer to the Getting Started with Your DSLR guide to view traditional ƒ-stops and shutter speeds.

Research portrait photography in your favorite web browser for inspiration. Research other terms such as contact sheets, exposure brackets, ISO, aperture or ƒ-stop, shutter speed and more to help you understand photography. Image results for contact sheets will mostly be of black & white photography – this is not a BW project.

 

Shot/Task List (108 Shots / same subject)

  • Set your camera to the appropriate ISO for the lighting situation (see ISO Quick Guide at left). You may vary the ISO during your shoot(s).
  • Meter the light to select the appropriate aperture & shutter speed and shoot – this is your normal exposure
  • Adjust the aperture or shutter speed to let 2 times more light in than normal and shoot the over exposure
  • Adjust the aperture or shutter speed to let 1/2 the amount of light in than normal and shoot the under exposure
  • Compose your next shot and repeat the normal, over and under exposures

 

Example Exposures

  • Example bracket by changing aperture:
    normal exposure = ISO 100, ƒ/8 @ 1/125 second
    over exposure = ISO 100, ƒ/5.6 @ 1/125 second (twice the exposure)
    under exposure = ISO 100, ƒ/11 @ 1/125 second (1/2 of the exposure)
  • Example bracket by changing shutter speed:
    normal exposure = ISO 100, ƒ/8 @ 1/125 second
    over exposure = ISO 100, ƒ/8 @ 1/60 second (twice the exposure)
    under exposure = ISO 100, ƒ/8 @ 1/250 second (1/2 of the exposure)

 

Traditional Settings

  • Traditional Apertures (ƒ-stops): each stop lets in 2 times more or 1/2 the amount of light

    ƒ/2.8, ƒ/4, ƒ/5.6, ƒ/8, ƒ/11, ƒ/16, ƒ/22

    Example: ƒ/4 lets in 2x more or double the amount of light than ƒ/5.6 – ƒ/8 lets in 1/2 the amount of light than ƒ/5.6
  • Traditional Shutter Speeds: each stop lets in 2 times more or 1/2 the amount of light

    T(ime), B(ulb), 30, 15, 8, 4, 2, 1, (seconds)

    1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/15, 1/30, 1/60, 1/125, 1/250, 1/500, 1/1000 ~ 1/8000 (fraction of a second)

    Example: 1/30 of a second lets in 2x more or double the amount of light than 1/60 of a second– 1/125 of a second lets in 1/2 the amount of light than 1/60 of a second

 

Shoot anything you want to further explore photography – it's normal to shoot hundreds or thousands of images during this course :)

Bring your camera, computer with Adobe Photoshop Lightroom installed and your digital files to the next class for processing.

egg with shadow

Project One

The Incredible Photogenic Egg: Study in Exposure & ISO

Due: October 13th

Concept: Set your camera to manual mode and photograph a still life with an egg as the main subject at ISOs 100*, 400, 800 and 3200, metering the light to get the best exposures and print your results.

* Use ISO 200 if that's the lowest ISO setting on your camera.

Project Brief: This is a study in exposure and what happens to your image quality when shooting at different ISO settings. Create a still life set up with an egg as the main subject or hero of the composition. Frame your composition, set the camera to manual mode, change the ISO to 100, meter the light and adjust the shutter speed and ƒ-stop to get the correct exposure. Switch the ISO to 400, 800 and 3200 and repeat. (Tip: you'll probably keep the ƒ-stop the same and simply change the shutter speed to compensate for the increased ISO sensitivity.) Feel free to unleash your creative beastie with the subject and your composition. Note: this is a color project, no BW images.

Extra credit star.Extra Credit: Stand the egg on it's end in your composition like the project illustration in the left sidebar for bonus points. Shoot additional sets of compositions for even more bonus points.

 

Getting Started:

  1. Set up your subject and anything else you want in your composition – remember, the egg is the hero,
  2. Light your subject, create interest with shadows – modify the light as necessary,
  3. Set your camera to the manual shooting mode and ISO to 100*,
  4. Aim your camera and frame the subject,
  5. Press the shutter release halfway to meter the exposure,
  6. Adjust the shutter speed and ƒ-stop for the best exposure,
  7. Press the shutter release to take the shot,
  8. Change the ISO to 400 and repeat steps 4–7 (see tip in Project Brief),
  9. Repeat with ISOs 800 and 3200,
  10. Import your images into Lightroom and make any necessary developments,
  11. Print your results on 8.5 x 11" paper, making the most of the 93.5 square inches of printing area – i.e. print as large as possible on the sheet of paper :)
  12. Bring your prints and files to the next class for additional processing and critique.

 

Shot & Task List

  • Still life with an egg as the main subject (the hero)
  • Shoot at ISOs 100*, 400, 800 & 3200
  • Import images into Lightroom & develop as necessary
  • Print on 8.5 x 11" paper
  • Bring your prints & gear to our next class for additional processing & critique
  • Be creative & have fun!

 

Tips and insight.

Shooting Sharp Photos…

  • Use a tripod, monopod or anything you can use to support you and your camera. Lean against a wall, railing, fence post, etc. If you're supported, your camera will be too. (Tripods available for check-out – see schedule on CA4006 or CA4010 doors for more information.)
  • Take care with focusing – auto focus is great, but sometimes you need to switch to manual focus to get the job done.
  • Try shooting at your lens' sweet spot – usually 2–3 ƒ-stops smaller than the widest (largest) aperture. All lenses are not created equal, so you have to experiment to find which aperture gives you the sharpest image for each of your lenses.
  • Use a cable release or your camera's self timer to trigger the shutter release instead of your finger to reduce camera shake (see your camera's user guide for info about your camera's self timer).
  • Brace your arms against your chest and hold your breath while hand-holding your camera – press the shutter release to take the shot and lift your finger in a smooth, fluid motion instead of awkwardly jerking your camera around.

 

Specifications (grading criteria – each worth 10% of total grade)
Content: 4 photos of subject at ISOs 100*, 400, 800 & 3200
Task: exploration of exposure & ISO, composition & creativity
File Properties (dimensions, resolution, color mode): executed in-class
Metadata: executed in-class (title, author, description, keywords, copyright status & notice, camera data)
File Format: executed in-class
Naming Convention: executed in-class (lowercase & hyphens)
Creativity: originality & inventiveness
Technical Skills: proficiency with software & hardware
Directions: adherence to instructions
Deadline: October 13th, bring your prints, gear & files to class for processing & critique

 

Portrait examples – color, BW, high & low key, creative/manipulated and selfie.

Portraits: (top to bottom) color, BW, high key, low key, manipulated & selfie. Click image for larger version.

 

 

Visuospatial resonance: Marilyn Monroe and Albert Einstein hybrid image.

Genius or star, you decide…
Visuospatial Resonance – Marilyn Monroe and Albert Einstein hybrid image, an example of a manipulated portrait.

Project Two

The Portrait & The Print

Portraits Due for Review & Retouching: October 20th
Portraits Due for Review & Retouching: October 27th
Digital Files & Prints Due for Critique: November 3rd

Concept: Photographic portrait study of tone, light and shadow.

Project Brief: Create a body of work consisting of six or more portraits to explore your creative talent in the photographic medium. Be creative with your models, poses, make-up, clothing, lighting, etc. Use your smartphone to take a selfie for quality comparison between camera sensors. It's OK to enlist one or more assistants to help if necessary – it's all good!

Point of Interest: Focus on your model's eyes when shooting.

 

Getting Started:

  1. Set your camera's shooting mode dial to aperture-priority (A if using Nikon or Av if using Canon). Aperture-priority mode allows you to select the ƒ-stop and your camera will select the shutter speed for the exposure).
  2. Select the ISO you want to use (see ISO Quick Guide in Challenge 3 sidebar),
  3. Light your model, create interest with shadows – modify the light as necessary,
  4. Aim your camera, frame the model and focus,
  5. Press the shutter release to take the shot,
  6. Move the model or camera and shoot additional exposures,
  7. Import your images into Lightroom, edit, making any developments and/or retouching,
  8. We'll look at your work on Friday, October 20th. You can make additional refinements and continue shooting during the week.

The Next Steps…

  1. Print your finished results on 8.5 x 11" paper, making the most of the 93.5 square inches of printing area – i.e. print as large as possible on the sheet of paper :)
  2. Write down the print resolution value (see Adobe Photoshop Print Settings below in Tips & Insights),
  3. Bring your prints, files and notes to class for additional processing and critique.

 

Shot List
Your 6 portraits should include…
(Disclaimer: links below are Google image searches – you never know what you're gonna get:)

 

Tips and insight.

  • Start with Research – Research portraiture, especially self-portraits made by artists over the years. Look beyond photographic portraits. Observe how artists, past and present depict themselves on paper, canvas and 3D. Make notes and sketches of your observations. Seek inspiration!
  • Search Term – portrait photography
  • The Art of Portrait Photography | Off Book | PBS Digital Studios
  • Using Light to Create Dimension and Texture in Photographs | Fstoppers
  • Peter Hurley: Illuminating The Face | Fstoppers
  • Lens Focal Length – focal lengths of 85mm – 135mm are popular with 105mm being a favorite among portrait photographers
  • Aperture – ƒ/5.6 and ƒ/8 are popular ƒ-stops for portrait photography and usually provide the sharpest results with most lenses – ƒ/2.8 or the largest aperture your lens has, will give you shallow depth of field, blurring background elements
  • Focus – portrait photographers usually focus on their model's eyes because humans are drawn to eyes in portraits – the eyes are windows or the gateway to the soul…
  • Manual Focus – change the focus control from auto to manual on your lens (switch or button on lens barrel) for absolute focusing control
  • Reflected Light – use something white like drawing paper, matte or illustration boards, or metallic like aluminum foil and mirrors to bounce light onto your subject to fill in shadow areas. Colored surfaces will reflect colored light. Bouncing light off of black surfaces can enhance and create depth in shadows.
  • Self Timer – great for taking self-portraits (see your camera's user guide for info about your camera's self timer)
  • High Key Portraits – model should wear light colored clothing, use a light background & bright light source(s)
  • Low Key Portraits – model should wear dark colored clothing, use a dark background & single light source
  • Manipulated Portraits – you're free to experiment with Lightroom and Photoshop to create an interesting portrait – be creative
  • Personal Expression – express your aesthetics and interests as you explore lighting and working with your models, be creative in all aspects of this project
  • Adobe Photoshop Print Settings – select Scale to Fit Media checkbox to print as large as possible on your 8.5 x 11" paper (see image below), record the print resolution in a text file and include it with your files for the critique – click image below for larger version. TextEdit on the Mac, Microsoft Word and Excel are great apps for keeping text records :)

Adobe Photoshop CC 2017 Print Settings – scale to fit media option and print resolution.

Specifications (grading criteria – each worth 10% of total grade)
Content: 6 photographic portraits, digital & printed, print resolution notes
Task: exploration of tone, light & shadow, ink-jet printing & resolution
File Properties (dimensions, resolution, color mode): executed in-class
Metadata: executed in-class (title, author, description, keywords, copyright status & notice, camera data)
File Format: executed in-class
Naming Convention: executed in-class (lowercase, hyphens, sequential numbering)
Creativity: originality & inventiveness
Technical Skills: proficiency with software & hardware
Directions: adherence to instructions
Deadlines:
October 20th – bring your files to class for processing;
October 27th – bring your files to class for processing;
November 3rd– bring files, prints & notes in for critique

Extra credit star icon.Extra Credit – Interested in going the extra mile to get bonus points and increase your skills? Shoot additional portraits of your choice and be creative!

 


File Naming Convention for Project 2 Folder & Files
Have your work (high resolution JPGs) ready to turn in when you arrive to class on Friday. Label the folder you plan to turn in with the following naming convention…

lastname-firstname-project-2

Label your six digital images with the following naming convention and put into your folder to copy to one of the USB drives…

lastname-firstname-p2-1-color.jpg
lastname-firstname-p2-2-bw.jpg
lastname-firstname-p2-3-high-key.jpg
lastname-firstname-p2-4-low-key.jpg
lastname-firstname-p2-5-manipulated.jpg
lastname-firstname-p2-6-selfie.jpg

 

Follow our naming convention for your text file containing your print resolution notes. TextEdit on the Mac or Microsoft Word and Excel can be used for your text documents.


Extra credit star icon.Extra Credit: Naming Convention for Additional Files
Students who wish to turn in multiple sets of files (even if it's one additional file) for extra credit should use an additional glyph in their naming convention to separate files and for alpha-numeric sorting.

Sets A & B in the example below represent full sets of images. Set C represents additional manipulated portraits and selfies a student wishes to turn in for extra credit along with sets A & B :)

Set A
lastname-firstname-p2-a-1-color.jpg
lastname-firstname-p2-a-2-bw.jpg
lastname-firstname-p2-a-3-high-key.jpg
lastname-firstname-p2-a-4-low-key.jpg
lastname-firstname-p2-a-5-manipulated.jpg
lastname-firstname-p2-a-6-selfie.jpg

Set B
lastname-firstname-p2-b-1-color.jpg
lastname-firstname-p2-b-2-bw.jpg
lastname-firstname-p2-b-3-high-key.jpg
lastname-firstname-p2-b-4-low-key.jpg
lastname-firstname-p2-b-5-manipulated.jpg
lastname-firstname-p2-b-6-selfie.jpg

Set C
lastname-firstname-p2-c-5-manipulated.jpg
lastname-firstname-p2-c-6-selfie.jpg

 

Quality Control Test: name your files and put them into a folder. What order are they in? Are your color portraits next to one another? Are your BW portraits next to one another? If so, check the file names and investigate the issue. Do your best to resolve the file naming issue so all files are ordered in their appropriate sets.

Tip: You can highlight the example names above with your mouse, stylus or finger, copy & paste onto your files. Just add your last and first name where appropriate and you should be good to go :)

Special chracters: copyright, registered trademark and trademark symbols.

Special Characters
Copyright symbol (Option + G), Registered Trademark symbol (Option + R) and Trademark symbol (Option + 2) can all be easily typed on a Mac.

Bonus Tip

Twelve Must-know Mac OS Keyboard Shortcuts for Special Characters

Digital imaging pros know their computers inside and out, including their keyboards and important keyboard shortcuts for special characters to get the job done! The following 12 shortcuts are part of everyday keystrokes, worth memorizing to allow you to be productive and type like the pros!

Name Symbol Keys
Acute Accent (résumé) ´ Option + E (followed by key press for vowel)
Bullet Option + 8
Cents ¢ Option + 4
Copyright Symbol © Option + G
Degree Symbol (90 ˚F) ˚ Option + K
Ellipsis (She said she was a dancer…) Option + ; (semicolon)
Em Dash (long dash—width of an M) Option + Shift + - (hyphen)
En Dash (wide dash, width of an N: Monday–Friday, 6–9 pm) Option + - (hyphen)
Eñe (Spanish character with a tilde over n: año, El Niño) ñ Option + N (followed by N)
Italicized f in ƒ-stop ƒ Option + F
Registered Trademark (officially used to mark one's property, illegal to use without proper, legal registration of trademark and subject to fines or other punishment) ® Option + R
Trademark (unregistered, used to mark one's property, can be used on anything) Option + 2

 

Double-bonus Tip: Links to additional Apple and Windows special characters.

Triple-bonus Tip: Use the menu,  > System Preferences… and select Keyboard in the second row to enable Show keyboard and emoji viewers in menu bar. You'll be able to use the Keyboard Viewer to see where special characters live on the keyboard so you can type them and the Emoji Viewer to select and insert emoji and special characters into your documents!

Quadruple-bonus Tip: The Apple icon () can be typed on a Mac using Option + Shift + K (not available in all fonts).